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Energy law forum №1 – 2019

ОБЗОР

ПОЗДРАВЛЕНИЯ С 5-ЛЕТИЕМ ЖУРНАЛА

ПРАВОВОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ БИРЖЕВОЙ ТОРГОВЛИ ЭНЕРГЕТИЧЕСКИМИ РЕСУРСАМИ

  • Романова Виктория Валерьевна,

    Проблемы и задачи правового обеспечения биржевой торговли энергетическими ресурсами в Российской Федерации и в рамках Евразийского экономического союза С. 9-17

    Романова Виктория Валерьевна, заведующий кафедрой энергетического права Московского государственного юридического университета имени О.Е. Кутафина (МГЮА), доктор юридических наук

    В соответствии с Национальным планом развития конкуренции развитие биржевой торговли отнесено к числу основополагающих принципов государственной политики Российской Федерации в данной сфере. К ожидаемым результатам при выполнении Национального плана развития конкуренции отнесено в том числе увеличение объема продаж природного газа на организованных торгах; в сфере нефти и нефтепродуктов предусматривается развитие рыночных механизмов ценообразования путем развития организованных торгов нефтью на экспорт и формирование эталона (бенчмарк) на российскую нефть, развитие срочного биржевого рынка на нефтепродукты. Биржевая торговля нефтью, нефтепродуктами, газом в Российской Федерации на сегодняшний день осуществляется на АО «Санкт-Петербургская международная товарно-сырьевая биржа», АО «Биржа «Санкт-Петербург», торговля фьючерсными контрактами на нефть осуществляется на Московской бирже, биржевая торговля отдельными нефтепродуктами, сжиженными углеводородными газами осуществляется также на АО «Крымская биржа». Наиболее активно биржевая торговля энергетическими ресурсами в Российской Федерации осуществляется на АО «СПбМТСБ». Учитывая, что правовых исследований, посвященных правовому регулированию биржевой торговли энергетическими ресурсами, на сегодняшний день не много, принимая во внимание задачи, поставленные Национальным планом развития конкуренции, представляется актуальным проведение правового анализа текущего состояния правового регулирования в Российской Федерации, правовые основы развития биржевой торговли в рамках Евразийского экономического союза, выявление пробелов, противоречий. В проведенном исследовании автор рассматривает общие требования к порядку организации и проведения биржевых торгов, установленные на уровне национальных законодательных и подзаконных нормативных правовых актов, проводит правовой анализ актов АО «СПбМТСБ», в части организации, регулирования и контроля за биржевой торговлей нефтью, нефтепродуктами, природным газом, положений Договора о Евразийском экономическом союзе, посвященных формированию общих рынков энергетических ресурсов, Концепций и Программ формирования общего электроэнергетического рынка, общего рынка газа, общих рынков нефти и нефтепродуктов. В работе предлагается условная классификация биржевых договоров энергетическими ресурсами, выявлены пробелы и противоречия в правовом регулировании, предлагаются возможные варианты их устранения. Данная работа может быть полезной для дальнейших правовых исследований, при осуществлении нормотворческой работы, в учебном процессе по энергетическому праву.

    Problems and Tasks of Legal Regulation of Exchange Trade in Energy Resources in the Russian Federation and in the Eurasian Economic Union

    Romanova Viktoriya V., Head of the Department of Energy Law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL), Doctor of Law

    In accordance with the National Plan on the Development of Competition, development of exchange trade is referred to the fundamental principles of the national policy of the Russian Federation in this sector. In the implementation of the National Plan on the Development of Competition, the expected results include, without limitation, an increase in the sales of natural gas at the organized tenders; in the field of oil and oil products, it is planned to develop market pricing mechanisms through development of organized trade in oil for export and formation of a benchmark for Russian oil, and development of the terminal market of oil products. In the Russian Federation, exchange trade in oil, oil products, and gas is currently performed at Joint- Stock Company Saint-Petersburg International Mercantile Exchange, Joint-Stock Company Saint-Petersburg Stock Exchange, futures contracts for oil are traded at the Moscow Stock Exchange, and exchange trade in certain oil products and liquefied hydrocarbon gases is also carried out at Joint-Stock Company Crimean Stock Exchange. The most active exchange trade in energy resources in the Russian Federation is performed at SPIMEX, JSC. Taking into account that there are currently few legal studies on the legal regulation of exchange trade in energy resources, and considering the tasks set by the National Plan on the Development of Competition, it seems relevant to conduct a legal analysis of the current state of legal regulation in the Russian Federation, the legal framework for development of exchange trade within the Eurasian Economic Union, and to identify gaps and contradictions. In the performed study, the author examines the general requirements to the organization and conduct of exchange trade established at the level of national legislative and subordinate regulatory legal acts, performs a legal analysis of the acts of SPIMEX, JSC, as related to organizing, regulating, and controlling the exchange trade in oil, oil products, and natural gas, provisions of the Eurasian Economic Union Treaty on formation of common energy markets, Concepts and Programs for the formation of a common electricity market, a common gas market, and common markets of oil and oil products. The work proposes a conditional classification of exchange contracts for trade in energy resources, identifies gaps and contradictions in legal regulation, and suggests possible solutions for their elimination. This work may be useful for further legal research, in the implementation of law-making work, and in the educational process on energy law.

ПРАВОВОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ БАЛАНСА ИНТЕРЕСОВ ПОСТАВЩИКОВ И ПОТРЕБИТЕЛЕЙ ЭНЕРГЕТИЧЕСКИХ РЕСУРСОВ

  • Салиева Роза Наильевна,

    Юридические средства обеспечения своевременного и полного внесения платежей потребителями энергетических ресурсов С. 18-22

    Салиева Роза Наильевна, профессор Института проблем экологии и недропользования Академии наук Республики Татарстан, доктор юридических наук

    Проведен анализ законодательства и правоприменительной практики в области снабжения потребителей различными видами энергоресурсов. Определены участники отношений в сфере снабжения энергоресурсами, а также выявлены юридические средства, способствующие обеспечению своевременного и полного внесения платежей потребителями энергетических ресурсов. В частности, уточнены правовые средства, которые избраны законодателем в целях укрепления платежной дисциплины потребителей энергетических ресурсов. Предложены дополнительные юридические средства, которые могли бы способствовать достижению названной цели. В частности, целесообразно использовать предусмотренную статьей 393 ГК РФ возможность возмещения убытков, поскольку согласно правовой позиции Конституционного Суда РФ в случае причинения реального имущественного вреда исполнителю (управляющей организации) или поставщику (ресурсоснабжающей организации) коммунальных ресурсов и услуг взыскание убытков является допустимым механизмом возмещения имущественного вреда. Рассмотрены возможности договорного регулирования. Целесообразно в договоры энергоснабжения включать условие о том, что на сумму денежного обязательства за период пользования потребителем денежными средствами подлежат начислению проценты по правилам ст. 317.1 ГК РФ как плата за пользование денежными средствами.

    Legal Measures to Ensure Timely and Full Payment by the Consumers of Energy Resources

    Salieva Roza N., Professor of the Institute for Environmental Problems and Subsoil Use of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Doctor of Law

    Laws and law enforcement practice in the field of supplying the consumers with various types of energy resources have been analyzed. The participants of the relations in the field of energy supply have been identified, and legal measures that contribute to ensuring timely and full payment by the consumers of energy resources have been specified. In particular, the legal measures that have been elected by the legislator in order to strengthen the payment discipline of the consumers of energy resources have been defined more exactly. Additional legal measures that could contribute to achievement of this goal are proposed. In particular, it is advisable to use the possibility of indemnification provided for in Article 393 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation since according to the legal position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, if actual property damage is caused to the contractor (managing entity) or the supplier (resource supplying entity) of utility resources and services, recovery of damages is an acceptable mechanism to compensate for property damage. The possibilities of contractual regulation are considered. It is advisable to include a provision that interest shall accrue on the amount of the monetary obligation for the period of the consumer’s use of funds according to the rules of Article 317.1 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation as payment for the use of the funds into the energy supply contracts.

ПРОБЛЕМЫ ПРАВОВОГО РЕГУЛИРОВАНИЯ В ОБЛАСТИ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ АТОМНОЙ ЭНЕРГИИ

  • Акимов Николай Андреевич,

    Особенности правового режима экстраординарных сделок в деятельности Государственной корпорации по атомной энергии ?Росатом? С. 23-30

    Акимов Николай Андреевич, аспирант кафедры энергетического права Московского государственного юридического университета имени О.Е. Кутафина (МГЮА)

    Специальный правовой режим совершения крупных сделок, а также сделок с заинтересованностью, по общему правилу, направлен на защиту прав и законных интересов участников корпорации от нежелательных действий управляющих лиц при распоряжении имуществом корпорации. Поскольку единственным учредителем Государственной корпорации по атомной энергии «Росатом» является Российская Федерация, при совершении данной корпорацией крупных сделок и сделок с заинтересованностью применяется особый правовой режим, установленный специальным законом, который направлен на обеспечение сохранности государственного имущества от возможных злоупотреблений со стороны лиц, входящих в органы такой корпорации, и, соответственно, защиту публичного интереса. Проводимое исследование обусловлено практическими проблемами, возникающими вследствие имеющихся правовых неопределенностей при совершении Государственной корпорацией по атомной энергии «Росатом» (Корпорацией) сделок, требующих специального порядка одобрения, к числу которых относятся сделки, связанные с приобретением, отчуждением либо возможностью отчуждения Корпорацией имущества, стоимость которого превышает размер, установленный Наблюдательным советом Корпорации (крупные сделки), а также сделки Корпорации, в совершении которых имеется заинтересованность.

    Peculiarities of the Legal Procedure for Extraordinary Transactions in the Activities of State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom

    Akimov Nikolay A., Postgraduate Student of the Department of Energy Law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL)

    Special legal procedure for settlement of major transactions as well as interested-party transactions, according to the general rule, is aimed at protection of the rights and legitimate interests of the members of the corporation against unwanted actions of the managers in the management of the corporation’s assets. Since the sole founder of State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom is the Russian Federation, when this corporation settles major and interested-party transactions, a special legal procedure established by a special law and aimed at ensuring protection of state property against possible abuses by persons engaged in the bodies of this corporation and, accordingly, protection of public interest is applied. The research was conducted due to practical problems arising out of the existing legal uncertainties in the settlement by State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom (the Corporation) of transactions requiring a special approval procedure, which includes transactions related to acquisition, alienation or possibility of alienation by the Corporation of property, value of which exceeds the amount established by the Supervisory Board of the Corporation (the major transactions) as well as the interested-party transactions of the Corporation.

ПРОБЛЕМЫ ПРАВОВОГО РЕГУЛИРОВАНИЯ НЕФТЯНОЙ ОТРАСЛИ

  • Сапожников Никита Сергеевич,

    Понятие и разновидности энергетических объектов нефтяной отрасли С. 31-37

    Сапожников Никита Сергеевич, аспирант кафедры энергетического права Московского государственного юридического университета имени О.Е. Кутафина (МГЮА)

    Статья посвящена особенностям правового режима энергетических объектов нефтяной отрасли, понятию таких объектов, их разновидностей и возможной классификации. В статье рассматривается текущее состояние нормативно-правовой базы, устанавливающей правовой режим энергетических объектов нефтяной отрасли. Автором исследуются нормы действующего законодательства, в которых содержатся основания для проведения классификации энергетических объектов, в частности, проанализирована судебная практика. В статье проанализирована правовая природа общественных отношений, возникающих в нефтяной отрасли. Общественные отношения, возникающие в нефтяной отрасли, охватывают в том числе общественные отношения, складывающиеся в процессе разведки месторождений, добычи, переработки нефти, транспортировки нефти, нефтепродуктов, поставки нефти, поставки, купли-продажи нефтепродуктов. Таким образом, под энергетическими объектами нефтяной отрасли понимаются объекты, предназначенные для разведки, добычи, транспортировки, хранения, продажи нефти и нефтепродуктов. Автором предлагается провести классификацию по следующим основаниям: по функциональному назначению; по отнесению к движимому или недвижимому имуществу; по отнесению к делимому либо неделимому имуществу; по отнесению к опасным производственным объектам; по антитеррористической защищенности.

    Concept and Types of Energy Facilities in the Oil Industry

    Sapozhnikov Nikita S., Postgraduate Student of the Department of Energy Law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL)

    The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the legal regime of energy facilities in the oil industry, the concept of such facilities, their types, and possible classification. The article discusses the current state of the regulatory framework that establishes the legal regime of the energy facilities in the oil industry. The author examines the rules of the current laws, which contain the basis for classification of the energy facilities, in particular, the judicial practice has been analyzed. The article analyzes the legal nature of public relations arising in the oil industry. The public relations arising in the oil industry include without limitation public relations that are formed in the process of exploration production, oil refining, transportation of oil, petroleum products, oil supply, supply, sale and purchase of petroleum products. Therefore, the energy facilities of the oil industry mean facilities intended for exploration, production, transportation, storage, and sale of oil and petroleum products. The author proposes a classification on the following grounds: by function; by attribution to movable or immovable property; by attribution to divisible or indivisible property; by attribution to hazardous production facilities; and by anti-terrorist security.

  • Шакеров Рустам Равилевич,

    Правовое регулирование биржевой торговли нефтью и нефтепродуктами в Великобритании С. 38-45

    Шакеров Рустам Равилевич, соискатель кафедры энергетического права Московского государственного юридического университета имени О.Е. Кутафина (МГЮА)

    Торговля нефтью и нефтепродуктами в Великобритании осуществляется на одной из крупнейших товарных бирж мира — Лондонской межконтинентальной бирже (ICE Futures Europe), которая является составной частью основанной в 2002 году Американской межконтинентальной биржи (ICE), известной всем игрокам сырьевого рынка в качестве транснациональной товарной биржи для проведения торгов различными товарами. На Лондонской межконтинентальной бирже осуществляется почти 50% мирового объема сделок с фьючерсами на нефть и нефтепродукты в мире. Деятельность Биржи регулируется в соответствии с требованиями Закона Великобритании о финансовых услугах и рынках 2000 года, контролируемым Банком Англии, а также Законом о товарных биржах. Автором исследуются порядок заключения договоров поставки нефти и нефтепродуктов, разновидности заключаемых договоров, требования к участникам биржевой торговли, методы контроля за деятельностью участников. Представляется, что проведенный правовой анализ может быть полезен как для последующих научных исследований, так и для дальнейшего развития правового регулирования биржевой торговли нефтью и нефтепродуктами в Российской Федерации.

    Legal Regulation of Exchange Trade in Oil and Oil Products in the UK

    Shakerov Rustam R., Degree-Seeking Student of the Department of Energy Law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL)

    In the UK, oil and oil products are traded at one of the world’s largest mercantile exchanges, the London Intercontinental Exchange (ICE Futures Europe), which is a part of the American Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) founded in 2002. The latter is known to all players in the commodity market as a transnational mercantile exchange for trading in various goods. At the London Intercontinental Exchange, almost 50% of the global volume of transactions in futures for oil and oil products in the world is settled. The activities of the Stock Exchange are regulated in accordance with the requirements of the United Kingdom Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 by the controlled Bank of England as well as by the Commodity Exchange Act. The author studies the procedure for conclusion of contracts for supply of oil and oil products, the types of contracts to be concluded, the requirements to the participants of exchange trade, the methods of control over the activities of the participants. It seems that the performed legal analysis can be useful both for subsequent scientific research and for further development of the legal regulation of exchange trade in oil and oil products in the Russian Federation.

ПРАВОВОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ ЭНЕРГЕТИЧЕСКОЙ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ В РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ И ЗА РУБЕЖОМ

  • Козлов Сергей Владимирович,

    Энергетическая безопасность: российский и европейский правовые подходы С. 46-51

    Козлов Сергей Владимирович, партнер Юридическая компания SKS Confidence, координатор рабочей группы по энергетическому праву Германо-Российская ассоциация юристов (DRJV), докторант кафедры публичного права Университета Регенсбурга (Германия)

    Автором продолжается исследование вопросов правового обеспечения энергетической безопасности. Первая часть исследования опубликована в журнале «Правовой энергетический форум» за 2018 год, № 3. В первой части исследования рассматривается правовое содержание понятия энергетической безопасности с учетом интересов в энергетике различных государств, выделяются и анализируются основные составляющие энергетической безопасности и роль государства в их обеспечении. Исследуя роль государства в обеспечении энергетической безопасности, автор отмечает, что государство использует как публично-правовые, так и частноправовые методы, и делает вывод, что роль государства в обеспечении безопасности энергоснабжения заключается, с одной стороны, в прогнозировании спроса и предложения, обеспечении благоприятных условий для деятельности энергетических компаний, осуществлении регулирования, государственного контроля (надзора), регламентации качества энергии (энергетических ресурсов), проведении государственной энергетической политики, а с другой стороны, в непосредственном воздействии на производство энергии (энергетических ресурсов) частноправовыми методами путем участия в уставном (акционерном) капитале энергетических компаний и принятии корпоративных решений. Во второй части статьи автор исследует правовые основы энергетической безопасности в Европейском Союзе, а также анализируются источники европейского и национального правового регулирования (на примере Германии). На основе результатов исследования, в том числе изложенных в первой части статьи, сделан ряд выводов и предложений, в частности о необходимости закрепления понятия «энергетическая безопасность» в действующем законодательстве.

    Energy Security: Russian and European Legal Approaches

    Kozlov Sergey V., Partner of SKS Confidence Law Firm, Coordinator of Working Group on Energy Law of the German-Russian Lawyers’ Association (DRJV), Applicant for the Doctor’s degree of the Public Law Department of the University of Regensburg (Germany)

    In the UK, oil and oil products are traded at one of the world’s largest mercantile exchanges, the London Intercontinental Exchange (ICE Futures Europe), which is a part of the American Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) founded in 2002. The latter is known to all players in the commodity market as a transnational mercantile exchange for trading in various goods. At the London Intercontinental Exchange, almost 50% of the global volume of transactions in futures for oil and oil products in the world is settled. The activities of the Stock Exchange are regulated in accordance with the requirements of the United Kingdom Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 by the controlled Bank of England as well as by the Commodity Exchange Act. The author studies the procedure for The author continues the study of issues of legal support of energy security. The first part of the study was published in the Energy Law Forum journal 2018, No. 3. The first part of the study considers the legal meaning of the concept of energy security taking into account the energy interests of various states, outlines and analyzes the main components of the energy security and the state’s role in ensuring thereof. While examining the role of the state in ensuring energy security, the author notes that the state uses both public law and private law methods, and concludes that the role of the state in ensuring security of energy supply consists, on the one hand, in forecasting supply and demand, securing favorable conditions for the activities of energy companies, regulation, state control (supervision), control of quality of energy (energy resources), and implementation of the national energy policy and, on the other hand, in the direct impact on production of energy (energy resources) by private law methods through participation in the authorized (share) capital of energy companies and adoption of corporate resolutions. In the second part of the article, the author examines the legal framework of energy security in the European Union, and analyzes the sources of European and national legal regulation (using Germany as an example). Based on the results of the study, including those set forth in the first part of the article, a number of conclusions and proposals were made, in particular, on the need to consolidate the concept of “energy security” in the effective laws.

ПРАВОВОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ BLOCKCHAIN В СФЕРЕ ЭЛЕКТРОЭНЕРГЕТИКИ

  • Максименко Петр Николаевич,

    Правовые риски и возможности использования технологии Blockchain в сфере электроэнергетики С. 52-59

    Максименко Петр Николаевич, главный специалист отдела правовой экспертизы и законодательных инициатив АО ?Мосэнергосбыт?

    Правовой анализ нормативно-правовой базы, регулирующей общественные отношения в сфере электроэнергетики, позволяет сделать вывод о необходимости значительных изменений, чтобы гарантировать возможность реального внедрения новейших технологий, минимизировать правовые риски для всех субъектов электроэнергетики, а также обеспечить защиту прав и законных интересов как потребителей электрической энергии, так и сбытовых, генерирующих и сетевых компаний. Перед законодателем и профессиональным сообществом стоит глобальная цель — выработать концепцию функционирования электроэнергетики, которая в средне- и долгосрочной перспективе обеспечит высокую инвестиционную привлекательность российского энергетического сектора и максимальную удовлетворенность всех субъектов рынка. Для этого в первую очередь следует определить те правовые риски и возможности, которые необходимо учитывать и прорабатывать для эволюционного развития отрасли. Автор исследует правовые основы внедрения Blockchain и «смарт» контрактов на оптовом и розничных рынках электрической энергии, рассматривает особенности правового положения субъектов электроэнергетики при использовании новых технологий. Содержащиеся в настоящей статье позиции, суждения и высказывания являются частным мнением автора и могут не совпадать с официальной позицией организации, в которой он работает, или какой-либо иной организации.

    Legal Risks and Opportunities Related to the Use of Blockchain Technology in the Energy Sector

    Maksimenko Petr N., Chief Specialist of the Department of Legal Examination and Legislative Initiatives of Mosenergosbyt, JSC

    Legal analysis of the regulatory framework governing public relations in the electric power industry makes it possible to conclude that significant changes are required to ensure the possibility of actual implementation of the advanced technologies, to mitigate legal risks for all subjects of the electric power industry, and to ensure protection of the rights and legitimate interests of both the electricity consumers, and the sales, generating and network companies. The legislator and the professional community have a global goal: to develop a concept for the functioning of the electric power industry, which in the medium- and long-term perspective will ensure the high investment attractiveness of the Russian energy sector and maximum satisfaction of all market entities. To that end, first of all, it is necessary to identify those legal risks and opportunities that must be considered and worked out for the evolutionary development of the industry. The author examines the legal basis for implementation of the blockchain and “smart” contracts in the wholesale and retail electricity markets, and considers peculiarities of the legal status of the electricity industry entities in the use of new technologies. The positions, opinions and statements contained in this article are the private opinion of the author and may not coincide with the official position of the entity, for which he works, or of any other entity.

OVERVIEW

CONGRATULATIONS ON THE 5TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MAGAZINE

LEGAL REGULARION OF EXCHANGE TRADE IN ENERGY RESOURCES

  • Romanova Viktoriya V.,

    Problems and Tasks of Legal Regulation of Exchange Trade in Energy Resources in the Russian Federation and in the Eurasian Economic Union С. 65-71

    Romanova Viktoriya V., Head of the Department of Energy Law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL), Doctor of Law

    In accordance with the National Plan on the Development of Competition, development of exchange trade is referred to the fundamental principles of the national policy of the Russian Federation in this sector. In the implementation of the National Plan on the Development of Competition, the expected results include, without limitation, an increase in the sales of natural gas at the organized tenders; in the field of oil and oil products, it is planned to develop market pricing mechanisms through development of organized trade in oil for export and formation of a benchmark for Russian oil, and development of the terminal market of oil products. In the Russian Federation, exchange trade in oil, oil products, and gas is currently performed at Joint- Stock Company Saint-Petersburg International Mercantile Exchange, Joint-Stock Company Saint-Petersburg Stock Exchange, futures contracts for oil are traded at the Moscow Stock Exchange, and exchange trade in certain oil products and liquefied hydrocarbon gases is also carried out at Joint-Stock Company Crimean Stock Exchange. The most active exchange trade in energy resources in the Russian Federation is performed at SPIMEX, JSC. Taking into account that there are currently few legal studies on the legal regulation of exchange trade in energy resources, and considering the tasks set by the National Plan on the Development of Competition, it seems relevant to conduct a legal analysis of the current state of legal regulation in the Russian Federation, the legal framework for development of exchange trade within the Eurasian Economic Union, and to identify gaps and contradictions. In the performed study, the author examines the general requirements to the organization and conduct of exchange trade established at the level of national legislative and subordinate regulatory legal acts, performs a legal analysis of the acts of SPIMEX, JSC, as related to organizing, regulating, and controlling the exchange trade in oil, oil products, and natural gas, provisions of the Eurasian Economic Union Treaty on formation of common energy markets, Concepts and Programs for the formation of a common electricity market, a common gas market, and common markets of oil and oil products. The work proposes a conditional classification of exchange contracts for trade in energy resources, identifies gaps and contradictions in legal regulation, and suggests possible solutions for their elimination. This work may be useful for further legal research, in the implementation of law-making work, and in the educational process on energy law.

LEGAL REGULARION OF THE BALANCE OF INTERESTS OF THE SUPPLIERS AND THE CONSUMERS OF ENERGY RESOURCES

  • Salieva Roza N.,

    Legal Measures to Ensure Timely and Full Payment by the Consumers of Energy Resources С. 72-75

    Salieva Roza N., Professor of the Institute for Environmental Problems and Subsoil Use of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Doctor of Law

    Laws and law enforcement practice in the field of supplying the consumers with various types of energy resources have been analyzed. The participants of the relations in the field of energy supply have been identified, and legal measures that contribute to ensuring timely and full payment by the consumers of energy resources have been specified. In particular, the legal measures that have been elected by the legislator in order to strengthen the payment discipline of the consumers of energy resources have been defined more exactly. Additional legal measures that could contribute to achievement of this goal are proposed. In particular, it is advisable to use the possibility of indemnification provided for in Article 393 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation since according to the legal position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, if actual property damage is caused to the contractor (managing entity) or the supplier (resource supplying entity) of utility resources and services, recovery of damages is an acceptable mechanism to compensate for property damage. The possibilities of contractual regulation are considered. It is advisable to include a provision that interest shall accrue on the amount of the monetary obligation for the period of the consumer’s use of funds according to the rules of Article 317.1 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation as payment for the use of the funds into the energy supply contracts.

PROBLEMS OF LEGAL REGULATION IN THE FIELD OF NUCLEAR ENERGY USE

  • Akimov Nikolay A.,

    Peculiarities of the Legal Procedure for Extraordinary Transactions in the Activities of State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom С. 76-82

    Akimov Nikolay A., Postgraduate Student of the Department of Energy Law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL)

    Special legal procedure for settlement of major transactions as well as interested-party transactions, according to the general rule, is aimed at protection of the rights and legitimate interests of the members of the corporation against unwanted actions of the managers in the management of the corporation’s assets. Since the sole founder of State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom is the Russian Federation, when this corporation settles major and interested-party transactions, a special legal procedure established by a special law and aimed at ensuring protection of state property against possible abuses by persons engaged in the bodies of this corporation and, accordingly, protection of public interest is applied. The research was conducted due to practical problems arising out of the existing legal uncertainties in the settlement by State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom (the Corporation) of transactions requiring a special approval procedure, which includes transactions related to acquisition, alienation or possibility of alienation by the Corporation of property, value of which exceeds the amount established by the Supervisory Board of the Corporation (the major transactions) as well as the interested-party transactions of the Corporation.

PROBLEMS OF LEGAL REGULATION OF THE OIL INDUSTRY

  • Sapozhnikov Nikita S.,

    Concept and Types of Energy Facilities in the Oil Industry С. 83-88

    Sapozhnikov Nikita S., Postgraduate Student of the Department of Energy Law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL)

    The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the legal regime of energy facilities in the oil industry, the concept of such facilities, their types, and possible classification. The article discusses the current state of the regulatory framework that establishes the legal regime of the energy facilities in the oil industry. The author examines the rules of the current laws, which contain the basis for classification of the energy facilities, in particular, the judicial practice has been analyzed. The article analyzes the legal nature of public relations arising in the oil industry. The public relations arising in the oil industry include without limitation public relations that are formed in the process of exploration production, oil refining, transportation of oil, petroleum products, oil supply, supply, sale and purchase of petroleum products. Therefore, the energy facilities of the oil industry mean facilities intended for exploration, production, transportation, storage, and sale of oil and petroleum products. The author proposes a classification on the following grounds: by function; by attribution to movable or immovable property; by attribution to divisible or indivisible property; by attribution to hazardous production facilities; and by anti-terrorist security.

  • Shakerov Rustam R.,

    Legal Regulation of Exchange Trade in Oil and Oil Products in the UK С. 89-95

    Shakerov Rustam R., Degree-Seeking Student of the Department of Energy Law of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL)

    In the UK, oil and oil products are traded at one of the world’s largest mercantile exchanges, the London Intercontinental Exchange (ICE Futures Europe), which is a part of the American Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) founded in 2002. The latter is known to all players in the commodity market as a transnational mercantile exchange for trading in various goods. At the London Intercontinental Exchange, almost 50% of the global volume of transactions in futures for oil and oil products in the world is settled. The activities of the Stock Exchange are regulated in accordance with the requirements of the United Kingdom Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 by the controlled Bank of England as well as by the Commodity Exchange Act. The author studies the procedure for conclusion of contracts for supply of oil and oil products, the types of contracts to be concluded, the requirements to the participants of exchange trade, the methods of control over the activities of the participants. It seems that the performed legal analysis can be useful both for subsequent scientific research and for further development of the legal regulation of exchange trade in oil and oil products in the Russian Federation.

LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF ENERGY SECURITY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ABROAD

  • Kozlov Sergey V.,

    Energy Security: Russian and European Legal Approaches С. 96-100

    Kozlov Sergey V., Partner of SKS Confidence Law Firm, Coordinator of Working Group on Energy Law of the German-Russian Lawyers’ Association (DRJV), Applicant for the Doctor’s degree of the Public Law Department of the University of Regensburg (Germany)

    In the UK, oil and oil products are traded at one of the world’s largest mercantile exchanges, the London Intercontinental Exchange (ICE Futures Europe), which is a part of the American Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) founded in 2002. The latter is known to all players in the commodity market as a transnational mercantile exchange for trading in various goods. At the London Intercontinental Exchange, almost 50% of the global volume of transactions in futures for oil and oil products in the world is settled. The activities of the Stock Exchange are regulated in accordance with the requirements of the United Kingdom Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 by the controlled Bank of England as well as by the Commodity Exchange Act. The author studies the procedure for The author continues the study of issues of legal support of energy security. The first part of the study was published in the Energy Law Forum journal 2018, No. 3. The first part of the study considers the legal meaning of the concept of energy security taking into account the energy interests of various states, outlines and analyzes the main components of the energy security and the state’s role in ensuring thereof. While examining the role of the state in ensuring energy security, the author notes that the state uses both public law and private law methods, and concludes that the role of the state in ensuring security of energy supply consists, on the one hand, in forecasting supply and demand, securing favorable conditions for the activities of energy companies, regulation, state control (supervision), control of quality of energy (energy resources), and implementation of the national energy policy and, on the other hand, in the direct impact on production of energy (energy resources) by private law methods through participation in the authorized (share) capital of energy companies and adoption of corporate resolutions. In the second part of the article, the author examines the legal framework of energy security in the European Union, and analyzes the sources of European and national legal regulation (using Germany as an example). Based on the results of the study, including those set forth in the first part of the article, a number of conclusions and proposals were made, in particular, on the need to consolidate the concept of “energy security” in the effective laws.

LEGAL SUPPORT OF BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY IN THE ENERGY SECTOR

  • Maksimenko Petr N.,

    Legal Risks and Opportunities Related to the Use of Blockchain Technology in the Energy Sector С. 101-106

    Maksimenko Petr N., Chief Specialist of the Department of Legal Examination and Legislative Initiatives of Mosenergosbyt, JSC

    Legal analysis of the regulatory framework governing public relations in the electric power industry makes it possible to conclude that significant changes are required to ensure the possibility of actual implementation of the advanced technologies, to mitigate legal risks for all subjects of the electric power industry, and to ensure protection of the rights and legitimate interests of both the electricity consumers, and the sales, generating and network companies. The legislator and the professional community have a global goal: to develop a concept for the functioning of the electric power industry, which in the medium- and long-term perspective will ensure the high investment attractiveness of the Russian energy sector and maximum satisfaction of all market entities. To that end, first of all, it is necessary to identify those legal risks and opportunities that must be considered and worked out for the evolutionary development of the industry. The author examines the legal basis for implementation of the blockchain and “smart” contracts in the wholesale and retail electricity markets, and considers peculiarities of the legal status of the electricity industry entities in the use of new technologies. The positions, opinions and statements contained in this article are the private opinion of the author and may not coincide with the official position of the entity, for which he works, or of any other entity.