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On issues of legal regulation in the oil industry

Romanova Victoria Valeryevna, Head of the Energy Law Sub-Department of O.E. Kutafi n Moscow State Law University, Doctor of Legal Sciences

In this article the author considers issues of legal regulation of the oil industry, turns attention to trends of changes and development of domestic national legal regulation of the oil industry, problems of legal regulation of investment projects in the Far East petrochemical and refining industry, principles of formation and functioning of the common markets of crude oil and petroleum products of member states of the Euroasian Economic Union. The article gives attention to matters of state regulation of the oil industry.

At the meeting of the Commission for Strategic Development of the Fuel and Energy Complex and Environmental Safety held on June 4, 2014 Russian President Vladimir Putin noted that the potential of the fuel and energy complex’s projects is the key to fulfillment of the task on creation of an environment for guaranteed growth of the country’s economy[1].

During the meeting the participants considered the most topical issues of the oil industry development, including the need to improve legal models for functioning of this energy sector, such as relations in exploration and extraction of such a strategic energy resource as oil, oil supply and transportation, and issues of international legal regulation.

In this article we would like to discuss some issues of legal regulation in the oil industry emphasizing the following: 1) trends of changes and development of domestic national legal regulation of the oil industry; 2) legal regulation of investment projects in the sphere of petrochemistry and refining in the Far East; 3) principles of formation and functioning of the common market of crude oil and petroleum products of the Eurasian Economic Union’s member states.

The legal regulation of the oil industry is primarily distinguished by the fact that unlike any other energy sector as, for example, in the power industry[2], gas industry[3], heat supply[4], in the sphere of nuclear energy use[5], today there is no so-called pivotal, special law, which would contain the unified rules for legal regulation of public relations in the oil industry.

A range of public relations arising in the oil industry is rather wide, because it includes relations in exploration, extraction, refining, supply, transportation and storage of crude oil and petroleum products.

Any relations between business entities in this sphere, between entities and consumers of the relevant goods and services are referred to as private law relations.

These relations are under state regulation. This is especially true for relations in oil extraction and transportation through main pipelines. Any relations between entities acting in the said spheres and authorized by public bodies are referred to as public law relations.

Thus, the oil industry is legally regulated by inherently complex legislation as any other energy sectors[6].

Among codified documents, the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, Tax Code, Land Code, Urban Development Code, Administrative Offences Code and Criminal Code are noteworthy.

Among federal laws regulating the above relations, Law of the Russian Federation dd. February 21, 1992 No. 2395-1 “On Subsoil”[7], Federal Law dd. December 30, 1995 No. 225-ФЗ “On Production Sharing Agreements”[8], Federal Law of November 30, 1995 No. 187-ФЗ “On the Continental Shelf of the Russian Federation”[9], Federal Law dd. No. 256-ФЗ “On Safety of the Fuel and Energy Complex Facilities”[10], Law of the Russian Federation “On the Customs Tariff”[11] are noteworthy.

Among by-laws, we should emphasize the following: Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. February 17, 2011 No. 90 “On the Procedure for Connection of Oil Production Facilities to Main Oil Pipelines in the Russian Federation and Recording of Business Entities Engaged in Oil Extraction”[12]; Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. March 29, 2011 No. 218 “On Provision of Non-Discriminatory Access to Natural Monopoly Entities’ Services in Transportation of Crude Oil (Petroleum Products) through Main Pipelines in the Russian Federation and Invalidation of Certain Acts of the Russian Government”[13]; Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. March 29, 2013 No. 277 “On the Procedure for Confirmation of the Fact of Extraction and Control of the Amount of Crude Oil, to which Particular Formulas for Calculation of Export Customs Duties for Crude Oil can be applied, and on Invalidation of Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. July 16, 2009 No. 574”[14]; Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. February 26, 2013 No. 155 “On the Procedure for Monitoring Prices of Urals Crude Oil in the World’s Oil Stock Markets (Mediterranean and Rotterdam), and on Invalidation of Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. March 28, 2012 No. 251”; Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. October 11, 2012 No. 1035 “On Approval of Criteria of Regular and Uniform Sales of Goods at the Exchange for Particular Commodity Markets, where Crude Oil and (or) Petroleum Products are Traded”[15]; Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. September 13, 2012 No. 923 “On Approval of the List of Goods and Resources that are Strategically Important for the Purposes of Article 226.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation”[16].

The specific feature of international legal regulation is initially determined by natural qualities of oil and by the need to ensure environmental and energy safety. In this regard, the following international treaties are noteworthy: International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Case of Oil Pollution Casualties[17], Protocol of 1992 to Amend the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage of 1969[18], International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation[19], International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage dd. March 23, 2001[20], Convention on Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents dd. June 22, 1993[21].

Obviously, it should not go unmentioned that there are numerous intergovernmental bilateral treaties on cooperation in the oil industry, including the Treaty between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in the Oil Industry[22], Treaty between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela on Cooperation in the Fuel and Energy Complex Sectors[23], along with treaties signed by the Eurasian Economic Community’s members.

The legal analysis of the above sources suggests that today a special oil legal regime was formed even without any unified regulatory legal instrument governing public relations in the oil industry — where oil is particularly seen as a strategically important resource, as a dangerous substance, as a commodity, as a target of relations on transportation by main pipeline transport and as a target of foreign trade transactions.

As to trends of national legal regulation, it is first of all necessary to dwell on the discussed concept of a bill on introduction of taxation of the financial result in oil extraction as part of pilot projects and fixing of a higher profit tax rate for these projects instead of MET payment[24]. The central idea of this proposal is that when field development starts, the tax burden on it is minimal and then grows as oil extraction ramps-up. Russian President V. Putin cast doubts about efficiency of this tax arrangement in terms of administration and noted that under the proposed tax regime “the financial result will be minimal all the time and the tax base —insignificant”[25].

Another challenge associated with oil extraction was the issue of reducing terms for granting subsoil to users.

Nowadays, the terms needed for the Federal Agency of Subsoil Use or its territorial bodies to discharge state functions, including issue, preparation and registration of subsoil licenses, are defined in the relevant Administrative Regulation approved by Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation dd. September 29, 2009 No. 315[26].

These terms are defined as follows. Pursuant to cl. 15 of the Administrative Regulation the terms for issue, preparation and registration of subsoil licenses shall not exceed 65 days; for amending and enhancing the subsoil license shall not exceed 140 days excluding the time specified in cl. 55 of this Administrative Regulation.

Thus, pursuant to cl. 16 of the said Administrative Regulation the bases to suspend state functions include: 1) amendments to the Russian legislation on subsoil during discharge of a state function, which changed the procedure for discharge of this function; 2) a license applicant’s written will on withdrawal of its request to amend and enhance the license and to re-issue the subsoil license.

Nowadays, the wording of the bases to suspend state functions specified in cl. 16 of the Administrative Regulation is quite ambiguous. The above clause specifies suspension of state functions, which terms is not very short, taking into account the limit stipulated in cl. 15. But the terms of suspension of a function on the basis specified in cl. 1, are not fixed at all, and the second basis actually speaks not for the need to suspend the function, but for the need to terminate it.

In this regard, it seems appropriate to ask a question related to possible reduction or at least specification of definite terms for granting subsoil areas taking into account, inter alia, the need to develop the resource base in Eastern Siberia and in the Far East.

Considering issues of various administrative barriers, including barriers in extraction of energy resources, the following points should be highlighted.

State regulation and state control in energy initially stem from the need to ensure energy and industrial security along with anti-terrorist security.

The said circumstances and natural specifics of energy resources as hazardous substances are the reason for additional requirements to energy actors at both international and national level.

These additional requirements are set, in particular, by International Convention on Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents dd. June 22, 1993, Federal Law dd. July 21, 1997 No. 116-ФЗ “On Industrial Safety of Hazardous Production Facilities” and Federal Law dd. July 21, 2011 No. 256-ФЗ “On Safety of the Fuel and Energy Complex Facilities”.

For example, pursuant to Federal Law dd. July 21, 2011 No. 256-ФЗ “On Safety of the Fuel and Energy Complex Facilities” the owner and keeper of the fuel and energy complex facilities, such as oil extracting, oil refining, petrochemical facilities and petroleum products suppliers, shall ensure safety of the fuel and energy complex facilities, shall provide for a package of special measures for safe operation of such facilities, localization and mitigation of emergency consequences during designing and construction of such facilities, owners of facilities that belong to high hazard rating facilities may not lease or otherwise use buildings, structures, their parts, relevant land plots for the purposes not associated with production activities without approval of an authorized federal executive body, owners of the fuel and energy complex facilities shall establish therein systems for protection of data and information-and-telecommunication networks from unauthorized access, etc.

Those are just a few examples of additional requirements to the fuel and energy complex entities.

At the same time, it is the fuel and energy complex entities that face challenges in implementation of major long-term investment projects aimed at development of entire regions.

In such circumstances, energy entities’ arguments on the need for state support in implementation of strategically important investment projects are quite reasonable to ensure a balance between property interests of energy entities and additional requirements to them. It is not by chance that the meeting of the Commission for Strategic Development of the Fuel and Energy Complex and Environmental Safety under the President of the Russian Federation held on June 4, 2014 raised the issue of prioritization of the Eastern Petrochemical Complex project in the Far East[27]. This project includes complex construction of infrastructure to meet the demands for oil refining and petrochemical products in the key markets.

A type of regulatory legal instrument to confirm the special status of this or that long-term project initially depends on relations subject to special regulation. If these are relations that are governed by the current legislation at the level of legislative acts, it is necessary to either adopt the relevant separate law or introduce proper additions to the current acts, if we speak about relations that are governed at the level of by-laws — then adoption of a proper subordinate regulatory legal instrument will suffice.

I would like at least briefly to refer to the issue of administrative influence limits.

This issue was repeatedly raised in the legal literature[28]. It seems that administrative influence shall respect two very important constituents. This influence shall not contradict the law and shall not hinder energy entities’ business activities primarily aimed at receipt of profit[29].

Another issue that I would like to highlight is the issue of arrangement, management, functioning and development of the common markets of crude oil and petroleum products of the Eurasian Economic Union’s member states. As was properly stated by A.G. Lisitsyn-Svetlanov, functioning of the oil and gas complex as the basis for energy is fairly considered in the context of international interaction of various states[30].

On May 29, 2014 the Eurasian Economic Union Treaty was signed in Astana[31]. Pursuant to cl. 1, Art. 84 of the Treaty the member states shall form the common markets of crude oil and petroleum products stage-by-stage according to annex No. 23 to this Treaty taking into account transitional provisions stipulated by cl. 6 and 7, Art. 104 of the Eurasian Economic Union Treaty[32].

Annex No. 23 includes the Protocol on the Procedure for Arrangement, Management, Functioning and Development of the Common Markets of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products. The said Annex defines the conceptual framework and basic principles of forming the common markets of crude oil and petroleum products.

The common market of crude oil and petroleum products means the complex of trade and economic relations of the member states’ commercial entities in extraction, transportation, supply, refining and sale of crude oil and petroleum products in the member states’ territories needed to meet the member states’ demands[33].

Actually, the date of entry into force of the Treaty marked the beginning of formation of the Union’s law, which pursuant to cl. 1, Art. 99 includes the member states’ international agreements signed as part of formation of the Customs Union and the Common Economic Area’s contractual legal framework valid at the date of entry into force of this Treaty, which are applied to the extent not contradicting this treaty. The legal analysis of Energy section, annexes to the Treaty, and valid international agreements within the Customs Union show that essential value in the Union’s law is attached to the energy law, which formation and development shall contribute to effective use of the fuel and energy complexes’ potential of the member states.



[1] Transcript of the meeting of the Commission for Strategic Development of the Fuel and Energy Complex and Environmental Safety under the President of the Russian Federation held on June 4, 2014. URL: http://state.kremlin.ru/commission/29/news/45831 (in Russian)

[2] Federal Law dd. March 26, 2003 No. 35-ФЗ “On Power Industry” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 2003, No. 13, Art. 1177 (in Russian)

[3] Federal Law dd. March 31, 1999 No. 69-ФЗ “On Gas Supply in the Russian Federation” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 1999, No. 14, Art. 1667(in Russian).

[4] Federal Law dd. July 27, 2010 No. 190-ФЗ “On Heat Supply” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 2010, No. 31, Art. 4159 (in Russian).

[5] Federal Law dd. November 21, 1995 No. 170-ФЗ “On the Use of Nuclear Energy” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 1995, No. 48, Art. 4552 (in Russian).

[6] Various issues of legal regulation in the oil industry are the subject matter of many interesting legal researches. See, e.g.: Kleandrov, M.I. Oil and Gas Legislation in the Russian Law System. Novosibirsk: NaukaSiberian publishing firm of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1999; Lisitsyn-Svetlanov, A.G. The Role of Law in Modernization of the Russian Economy. Moscow: The Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2011; Salieva, R.N., Fatkudinov, Z.M., Chizhikov, Yu.N. Legal Regulation of Business (Entrepreneurial) Relations in the Fuel and Energy Complex: Textbook. Tyumen: TSOGU, 2011, etc. (in Russian)

[7] Law of the Russian Federation dd. February 21, 1992 No. 2395-1 “On Subsoil” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 1995, No. 10, Art. 823 (in Russian).

[8] Federal Law dd. December 30, 1995 No. 225-ФЗ “On Production Sharing Agreements’ // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 1996, No. 1, Art. 18 (in Russian).

[9] Federal Law dd. November 30, 1995 No. 187-ФЗ “On the Continental Shelf of the Russian Federation” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 1995, No. 49, Art. 4694 (in Russian).

[10] Federal Law dd. July 21, 2011 No. 256-ФЗ “On Safety of the Fuel and Energy Complex Facilities” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 2011, No. 30 (Part I), Art. 4604 (in Russian).

[11] Law of the Russian Federation dd. May 21, 1993 No. 5003-1 “On the Customs Tariff” // Rossiyskaya Gazeta, April 5, 1993 (in Russian)..

[12] Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. February 17, 2011 No. 90 “On the Procedure for Connection of Oil Production Facilities to Main Oil Pipelines in the Russian Federation and Recording of Business Entities Engaged in Oil Extraction” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 2011, No. 8, Art. 1130 (in Russian).

[13] Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. March 29, 2011 No. 218 “On Provision of Non-Discriminatory Access to Natural Monopoly Entities’ Services in Transportation of Crude Oil (Petroleum Products) through Main Pipelines in the Russian Federation and Invalidation of Certain Acts of the Russian Government” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 2011, No. 14, Art. 1943 (in Russian).

[14] Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. March 29, 2013 No. 277 “On the Procedure for Confirmation of the Fact of Extraction and Control of the Amount of Crude Oil, to which Particular Formulas for Calculation of Export Customs Duties for Crude Oil Can be Applied, and on Invalidation of Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. July 16, 2009 No. 574” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 2013, No. 13, Art. 1578 (in Russian).

[15] Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. October 11, 2012 No. 1035 “On Approval of Criteria of Regular and Uniform Sales of Goods at the Exchange for Particular Commodity Markets, where Crude Oil and (or) Petroleum Products are Traded” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 2012, No. 42, Art. 5725 (in Russian)

[16] Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dd. September 13, 2012 No. 923 “On Approval of the List of Goods and Resources that are Strategically Important for the Purposes of Article 226.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation” // Collection of the Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 2012, No. 38, Art. 5133 (in Russian).

[17] International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Case of Oil Pollution Casualties dd. November 29, 1969 // Notes on the Sea Law and International Trade Navigation. Design, Survey and Research Institute of Sea Transport, 1973. Issue 4. Transport.

[18] Protocol of 1992 to Amend the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage of 1969 // Bulletin of International Treaties, 2004, No. 6. For the Russian Federation the Protocol came into effect on March 20, 2001.

[19] International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation dd. November 30, 1990 // Bulletin of International Treaties, 2010, No. 10. Russia became a party to the Convention in 2009.

[20] International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage dd. March 23, 2001 // Bulletin of International Treaties, 2009, No. 11. For the Russian Federation the convention came into effect on May 24, 2009.

[21] Convention on Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents dd. June 22, 1993 // Bulletin of International Treaties, 2013, No. 4.

[22] Treaty between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in the Oil Industry dd. April 21, 2009 // Bulletin of International Treaties, 2010, No. 2.

[23] Treaty between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela on Cooperation in the Fuel and Energy Complex Sectors dd. November 26, 2004 // Bulletin of International Treaties, 2005, No. 5.

[24] For more details, see: the transcript of the meeting of the Commission for Strategic Development of the Fuel and Energy Complex and Environmental Safety under the President of the Russian Federation held on June 4, 2014 URL: http://state .kremlin.ru/commission/29/news/45831 (in Russian)

[25] See the same source.

[26] Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation dd. September 29, 2009 No. 315 “On Approval of the Administrative Regulation of the Federal Agency of Subsoil Use on Discharge of State Functions on Issue, Preparation and Registration of Subsoil Licenses, Amending and Enhancing Subsoil Area Licenses, and on Renewal of Licenses and Adoption of Decisions on Early Termination, Suspension and Limitation of the Right to Use Subsoil Areas, as Advised by the Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resources Management and Other Authorized Bodies” // Bulletin of Regulatory Instruments of Federal Executive Authorities, 2010, No. 10 (in Russian).

[27] The transcript of the meeting of the Commission for Strategic Development of the Fuel and Energy Sector and Environmental Security under the President of the Russian Federation held on June 4, 2014. URL: http://state.kremlin.ru/commission/29/news/45831 (in Russian)

[28] See, e.g.: Bublik, V.A., Perevalov, V.D. Modern Civil Law - Balance of the Private and the Public // Civil Notes. Interuniversity Collection of Scientific Papers: to the 80th Anniversary of S.S. Alekseev. Moscow - Yekaterinburg: Statut, Institute of Private Law, 2004, p. 57; Belykh, V.S. Legal Regulation of Business Activities in Russia: Monograph. Moscow: Prospect, 2010, p. 270; Marchenko, M.N. Theory of State and Law: Textbook. 2nd edition, revised and updated. Moscow: Prospect, 2011, pp. 408-409; Popondopulo, V.F. Commercial (Entrepreneurial) Law: Textbook. 3rd edition, revised and updated. Moscow: Norma, 2008, p. 447; Romanova, V.V. Legal Regulation of Construction and Modernization of Energy Facilities. Moscow: Yurist, 2012, pp. 306-309; Romanova, V.V. Energy Law. General Principles: Textbook. Moscow: Yurist, 2013, pp. 202-208 (in Russian).

[29] For example, procedural legislation clearly defines the criteria, which provide grounds for the court’s decision to invalidate a governmental body’s act or its action (inaction). Pursuant to cl.1, Art. 198 of the Arbitration Procedure Code of the Russian Federation the right to lodge an appeal with the arbitration court for invalidation of non-regulatory legal instruments, decisions, actions (inaction) shall match the following criteria: the disputable non-regulatory legal instrument, decision, action (inaction) do not comply with the law or any other regulatory legal instrument and violate their rights and legitimate interests in business and any other economic activities, illegally charge them with any duties, create other obstacles for business and any other economic activities. For more details, see: Romanova, V.V. Energy Law. General Principles: Textbook. Moscow: Yurist, 2013, pp. 202-208.

[30] Lisitsyn-Svetlanov, A.G. The Role of Law in Modernization of Russia’s Economy. Moscow: Institution of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences”, 2011, p. 87.

[31] See: the text of the Treaty and Annexes thereto. URL: http://www.economy.gov.ru/wps/wcm/connect/economylib4/mer/about/structure/depsng/agreement-eurasian-economic-union

[32] Pursuant to cl. 6, Art. 104 of the Eurasian Economic Union Treaty, in order to form the common markets of crude oil and petroleum products the Supreme Council shall approve the concept prior to January 1, 2016 and the program of forming the Union’s common markets of crude oil and petroleum products prior to January 1, 2018 with the term for implementing the program till January 1, 2024. Pursuant to cl. 7, Art. 104 of this Treaty upon completion of implementing the program for formation of the Union’s common markets of crude oil and petroleum products the member states will sign an international agreement on formation of the Union’s common markets of crude oil and petroleum products containing, inter alia, unified rules of access to the crude oil and petroleum products transportation systems located in the member states’ territories and will ensure its entry into force prior to January 1, 2025.

[33] It should be noted that a similar definition of the common market of crude oil and petroleum products concept is given in the Agreement on Procedure for Arrangement, Management, Functioning and Development of the Common Markets of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products of the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation dd. December 9, 2010. This definition also includes relations in oil extraction. Furthermore, it should be noted that the section of the Treaty dd. May 29, 2014 on taxes and taxation includes provisions on taxation in mutual trade and includes no provisions on MET. In this case the issues of taxation of oil extraction operations are probably referred to issues, which are regulated by national legislation, though based on the definition given in the Treaty dd. May 29, 2014 the relations in oil extraction are included in the definition of the common market of crude oil and petroleum products concept.

Bibliography:

  1. Belykh, V.S. Legal Regulation of Business Activities in Russia: Monograph / V.S. Belykh. Moscow: Prospect, 2010. p. 270 (in Russian).
  2. Bublik, V.A., Perevalov, V.D. Modern Civil Law - Balance of the Private and the Public / V.A. Bublik, V.D. Perevalov // Civil Notes. Interuniversity Collection of Scientific Papers: to the 80th Anniversary of S.S. Alekseev. Moscow - Yekaterinburg: Statut, Private Law Institute, 2004. p. 57 (in Russian).
  3. Kleandrov, M.I. Oil and Gas Legislation in the Russian Law System / M.I. Kleandrov. Novosibirsk: Nauka. Siberian Publishing Firm of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1999 (in Russian).
  4. Lisitsyn-Svetlanov, A.G. The Role of Law in Modernization of Russia’s Economy / A.G. Lisitsyn-Svetlanov. Moscow: Institute of State and Law of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2011 (in Russian).
  5. Marchenko, M.N. Theory of State and Law: Textbook / M.N. Marchenko. 2nd edition, revised and updated. Moscow: Prospect, 2011. pp. 408-409 (in Russian).
  6. Popondopulo, V.F. Commercial (Entrepreneurial) Law: Textbook / V.F. Popondopulo. 3rd edition, revised and updated. Moscow: Norma, 2008. p. 447 (in Russian).
  7. Romanova, V.V. Energy Law. General Part: Textbook / V.V. Romanova. Moscow: Yurist, 2013. pp. 202-208 (in Russian).
  8. Romanova, V.V. Legal Regulation of Construction and Modernization of Energy Facilities / V.V. Romanova. Moscow: Yurist, 2012. pp. 306-309 (in Russian).
  9. Salieva, R.N. Legal Regulation of Business (Entrepreneurial) Relations in the Fuel and Energy Complex: Textbook / R.N. Salieva, Z.M. Fatkudinov, Yu.N. Chizhikov. Tyumen: TSOGU, 2011 (in Russian).